Illustrated bicycle parts diagram, choose the most suitable bike accessories for yourself.

When enjoying the fun of riding a bicycle in the city or on the road, you might encounter issues such as a dropped chain, a flat tire, or the need to adjust the seat height when sharing bikes with friends. Do you know the names of the parts that might malfunction? Where should you start repairing from? Different heights and angles of the bicycle handlebars can also affect the rider's comfort. Choosing accessories that suit your bike is essential to make your riding experience more convenient and comfortable.

Enjoy the exhilarating experience of cycling in the city and on the road. However, after riding for a while, you might start feeling that this familiar "steed" is behaving oddly. When it comes to replacement or maintenance, it can be difficult to explain the issues to the bike shop owner. Let's take a look at the diagram and explanations of bicycle parts to get to know your bike better.

List of Bicycle Parts Diagram
2.Handle bars
3.Brake lever
4.Shift lever
5.Head tube
8.Brake disc
15.Bottom bracket
16.Chainwheel Chainring
17.Chain stay
19.Rear derailleur
20.Cassette sprockets
21.Through axle
22.Seat stay
23.Seat post clamp
24.Seat post
26.Front derailleur
27.Down tube
28.Seat tube
29.Top tube
31.Stem cap

Introduction to Bicycle Parts

Bicycle Parts Diagram with English and Chinese Names
Bicycle Parts Diagram


The frame is the most important foundational structure of a bicycle and a crucial factor affecting the riding experience. When purchasing, pay attention to whether the frame size matches the rider's height and focus on lightweight and high strength. Common frame materials include aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, carbon fiber, synthetic steel, etc.

Head Tube - Connects the top tube and down tube, with the fork passing through it, housing the headset assembly.
Top Tube - Connects the head tube and seat tube.
Down Tube - Connects the head tube and bottom bracket.
Seat Tube - The length of the seat tube directly affects the riding experience. Choose a suitable frame size based on the rider's inseam height.
Seat Stay - Connects the top edge of the seat tube to the rear dropouts and rear axle.
Chain Stay - Connects the bottom bracket to the rear dropouts and rear axle.
Fork - Controls the front wheel and provides shock absorption.
Saddle - Supports the rider's weight. Choose for comfort to reduce pressure and friction.
Seat Post - Connects the saddle to the frame, supporting the saddle's weight.
Seat Post Clamp - Secures the seat post to the frame, allowing for seat height adjustments.

Bicycle Handlebar Introduction
Bicycle Handlebar Introduction

Steering System

The pivotal control system for bicycle movement.

Handlebar - Connects to the stem, enabling the front fork to turn and control the direction. Road bikes often use drop bars to reduce air resistance by lowering the upper body, while flat bars are also used.
Handlebar Tape - Provides grip and shock absorption, preventing sweat from eroding the grips.
Brake/Shift Lever - Road bike brake and gear shift levers are often integrated, mounted vertically on the handlebars.
Headset - Bearings installed on both ends of the head tube, fixing the front fork steering tube for rotational movement.
Stem Cap - Protects the headset, acting as a dust and water cover.
Stem - Connects the handlebar to the front fork steering tube, providing stability, counteracting pedaling forces, and controlling steering.

Bicycle Brake System
Bicycle Brake System

Brake System

Controls the front and rear wheels to slow down the bicycle and stop safely.

Caliper Brake - Uses a movable piece to connect the brake pads, slowing down or stopping the wheel. Road bikes often use C-type caliper brakes (C-clips), and disc brakes are also used.
Brake Pads - Clamps the wheel rim to inhibit wheel rotation, thus slowing down or stopping.
Brake Cable - Connects the brake lever to the caliper.

Bicycle Transmission System
Bicycle Transmission System

Transmission System

The transmission system is like the heart of a bicycle, providing the driving force for the bike to move forward. These components endure pedaling force and, due to their proximity to the ground, are susceptible to wear from dirt and mud. Regular maintenance and inspection are essential.

Pedals - The pedal platform where both feet exert force, propelling the bicycle. In addition to pedals suitable for various bike types, clip-in pedals are also available.
Crank - Connects the bottom bracket and pedals, transmitting pedaling force to the chain.
Chainring / Chainwheel - Large gears connected to the right crank.
Bottom Bracket (BB) - Connects the chainring, crank, and frame together.
Chain - Connects the chainring to the rear cassette, transferring energy to the rear wheel for bike movement.
Freewheel / Cassette - Composed of multiple gears, placed on the rear wheel's freehub.
Front Derailleur - Controls chain movement between the chainrings.
Rear Derailleur - Controls chain movement between the cassette gears.
Derailleur Cable - Connects the shift lever to the derailleurs.

Bicycle Transmission System
Bicycle Transmission System


Bicycles rely on the friction between tires and the ground for movement and stopping. Thus, the material and design of the wheelset can influence speed and stability during riding.

Rim - The outer frame of the wheel where the tire is secured.
Hub - Bearings that drive the wheel's rotation, available in quick-release and thru-axle types, and paired with the corresponding cassette body.
Spoke - Also known as spokes, they connect the hub to the rim, typically arranged radially or in a crossed pattern.
Nipple - The nut that secures the spoke to the rim.
Cassette Body - Secures the cassette with one-way teeth. Pedaling forward drives the rear wheel, while pedaling backward allows for freewheeling.
Quick Release - A component that fastens the wheelset, easily opened or closed with a lever.
Dropout (Front / Rear) - Small slots at the ends of the front fork and rear triangle of the frame, accommodating the wheel axle and providing support for the rear derailleur and frame action.
Tire - Available in various sizes and tread patterns based on different requirements. Thinner tires offer less rolling resistance, while wider tires provide better shock absorption. Road bike tires are generally divided into clincher and tubular types, with tubeless options available.
Valve - The location for inflating the tire, commonly available in Schrader and Presta valve types. Schrader valves are similar to those on cars and motorcycles, while Presta valves require an adapter.

2. Introduction to Head Tube Angle

For those who have just started cycling or experienced riders, do you remember being puzzled by numbers like 90, 100, 110mm or angles like 6, 8, 10, 12 degrees when dealing with stem components? In fact, these numbers represent important data for the stem's "length" and "angle," which are crucial indicators to help elevate our cycling experience and comfort!

Bicycle Stem
Common bicycle stem styles (Reference Source: Bike Era)
Meaning of Various Numbers at the Back of the Stem
Meaning of various numbers at the back of the stem? (Reference Source: Bike Era)

Impact of Stem Length on Body Reach

The stem's length is adjusted according to the bike's top tube length, and the two complement each other. Due to variations in upper body and arm length among individuals, combined with differing top tube lengths for each bike, the stem length is not a fixed number. Therefore, choosing the right stem is often a critical step in bike setup, although its effects may not be immediately noticeable to consumers. Professional bike shops typically provide a range of stem lengths for consumers to adjust and choose from.

Generally, stem lengths range from 80mm to 120mm, but some individuals might use stems even longer than 130mm, depending on personal needs. In simple terms, if you feel that the top tube is too long and your riding position is too low when you first get the bike, one approach is to use a shorter stem to find your comfortable distance. Conversely, if you feel too cramped, you can try using a longer stem.

Comparison of Bicycle Stem Angles
Stem lengths from top to bottom: 80mm, 100mm, 110mm (Image Source: Bike Era)

In comparison, inadvertently choosing a stem that's too long can affect the riding feel, resulting in a somewhat dull sense of control and more weight on the front end. Conversely, a stem that's too short could lead to overly sensitive handling, making even slight movements challenging. FSA's Mr. Chiang suggests that cyclists can undergo a fitting process, where they can sit on a simulation bike to find their suitable match. Alternatively, asking friends of similar build about their stem choices is another approach.

Impact of Stem Angle on Upper Body Height

Another determining factor is the stem angle. Given that the frame's head tube length is determined, adjusting the stem angle can influence the overall lower riding position. Stems with a steeper angle can effectively reduce air resistance. However, the stem angle shouldn't be too low either. If the center of gravity is too low, apart from accumulating back fatigue during acceleration, compressed chest due to downward pressure might hinder athletic performance.

Commonly, the stem angle of off-the-shelf bikes falls within the range of 6 to 12 degrees, which is generally accepted by most cyclists. Sometimes more extreme angles like 17 or 20 degrees might be available. Similar to stem length, cyclists are recommended to use the fitting process to find the best stem setting suitable for them.

Comparison of Bicycle Stem High Angles
Stem angles from top to bottom: +6, +12, +20 degrees (Image Source: Bike Era)

The stem's length and angle deeply affect the rider's upper body experience, including arm extension and chest angle. These factors influence the rider's sense of control. The choice of stem must also complement the geometry of the bicycle. Different frame designs result in varying top tube and head tube lengths. Stem angle and length are designed to harmonize with the frame, giving rise to various size options.

Proper component adjustments not only allow muscles to work more efficiently but also create a natural alignment between the hips, spine, shoulders, and arms. This alignment helps the body naturally absorb impacts from the road. Furthermore, it prevents discomfort in areas like shoulders due to prolonged unnatural postures. This highlights the significant role the stem plays in affecting the whole body.

3. Bicycle Accessory Selection

After understanding your bicycle, the desire to "customize" often arises. In addition to replacing the bicycle parts mentioned above, there are countless other bicycle accessories to consider. When heading out with fellow riders, smartphones are commonly brought along. Figuring out how to carry your phone becomes one of the factors to consider.

Cyclist with a Smartphone Mounted on the Handlebar
Carry your smartphone while cycling to track mileage and share instantly

Why bring a smartphone? Apart from recording mileage and tracking fitness, it serves as a navigation tool for cycling routes, ensuring safer and quicker route planning. In addition to sharing personal routes, you can also explore recommended routes from others. It might even feel like discovering hidden treasures. A bicycle phone mount is a practical accessory that enhances convenience, protects your phone, and elevates your cycling experience. If you're accustomed to long rides, a bicycle phone charger kit is also essential.

Charging a Smartphone while Cycling
Charge your phone while riding to keep the journey powered
Bicycle Phone Charger Kit Attached to the Handlebar
The handlebar is a convenient spot for attaching accessories

Besides smartphones, what else should you carry while cycling? In case of a sudden flat tire, having a bicycle tool kit at hand can provide emergency assistance, allowing you to temporarily fix the bike and ride it to a repair shop later.

Whether you're hungry, experiencing muscle cramps, or lacking electrolytes, cyclists know that carrying supplies is crucial for extending ride distance. In addition to bike phone bags, you can also choose the versatile bike strap, which allows you to easily secure a jacket, small bag, water bottle, banana, or tire repair tools to the handlebar. This offers necessary items while riding without adding extra load to yourself.

Bike Strap Holding a Banana, Umbrella, Water Bottle, and Horn
Bike strap for carrying various essentials

After introducing the bicycle components, you probably have a deeper understanding of your "steed." Many of you might be thinking about customization. Ultimately, consider your personal riding habits, physical health, and evaluate the suitable journey for yourself.

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